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Redefining Heresy and Tolerance: Governance of Muslims and Christians in the Qing Empire before 1864


[Why am I Tolerating Christians: Religious Tolerance of Mid-Nineteenth Century Confucians]


  • 〈在烏瑪與中華之間:穆斯林精英在五四運動中的困局〉[In-Between Ummah and China: Dilemma of Muslim Elites in the May Fourth Movement],《成大歷史學報》[Cheng Kung Journal of Historical Studies]. To be published by 2024.

  • 〈對話的成本:蒙兀兒帝國皇帝阿克巴案例與宗教對話〉[The Cost of Dialogue: Emperor Akbar of the Mughal Empire and Interfaith Dialogue],《臺灣宗教研究》[Taiwan Journal of Religious Studies]. To be published by 2023.

  • “Prayer in the Eye of the Storm: Oral Histories of Macau’s Multi-ethnic Sinophone Muslims.” To be published in Dirasat by 2024.

  • 〈在三十五年後回顧余英時的「韋伯式問題」:宗教學的觀察〉 [Retrospecting Yu Ying-shih's 'Weberian Questions' after 35 Years: A Religious Perspective],《思想史》 [Intellectual History],第12期,2023,頁155-206。

  • “The Wolves of Jiangnan: The Book of Swindles and Commercialised Society in Early 17th Century.” To be published in Ming Qing Yanjiu (as co-author, with Wong Tin Kei 黃天琦) by 2024.

  • 〈內隱記憶的構成:1930年以來華語穆斯林的澳門生活經驗〉 [The Composition of Implicit Memory: The Experience of Chinese Muslims in Macao since 1930],《文化雜誌》(澳門)[Review of Culture (Macau)]. To be published by 2023.

  • 〈異端為官:雍正年間穆斯林官員的不道德嫌疑〉[Heresy in Bureaucracy: Suspicious of Immorality of Muslim Officials in Yongzheng Era],《新史學》[New History],33.2(2022),頁1-63。

  • 〈功德生民則祀之︰「政教分離」與中國宗教的「政教關係」〉[Whoever is meritorious to the people shall be deified: “Separation of Church and State” and the Religion State Relationship of Chinese Religion]。《二十一世紀》[Twenty-First Century],2021年 2 月號,總第 183 期,頁 122-139。

  • “The Birth of Religious Tolerance for Foreign Religions in Late Imperial China: A Brief Review from the Perspective of the Relationship between Religion and the State.” Dirasat, Vol.55 (2020), pp.1-48.

  • “After Diu: The Forgotten Islamic Trade in Early Nineteenth Century Cantonese Confucian Historiography.” Journal of Islam in Asia, Vol.16, No.1: Special Issues: Islam in the China Seas (2019), pp.107-136.

  • 〈沒有一神信仰的中國宗教的確更加寬容嗎?〉[Without Monotheism, is Chinese Religions More Tolerance?]。《田家炳中華文化中心通訊》[Newsletter of OUHK Tin Ka Ping Centre of Chinese Culture],第3期,2019,頁37-40。

  • 〈1760年至1864年伊犁之穆斯林與帝國:清帝國宗教政策的反思〉[Muslims in Ili from 1760-1864: Rethinking of Religious Policy in the Qing Empire]。《中東中亞研究》[The Journal of Middle East and Central Asia Studies],第2期,2018,頁56-88。

  • “Marginalized Christianity and Western Learning in Early 19th Century Confucians’ Understanding of Western Knowledge in Huangchao jingshi wenbian.” Sino-Christian Studies, no.23 (2017), pp.41-80.

  • 〈處境、神話、象徵與意義──清中末葉儒士筆下之聖母形象 〉[Context, Myth, Symbol, and Meanings ── St. Mary in the Discourse of Middle to Late Qing Empire]。《大學海》[Eruditus],2017年,第四期,頁222-234。

  • 〈從儒者宗教觀重探基督宗教在中國的處境姚瑩與康輶紀行〉[Reconstruction of Confucian Views of “Religion” and Christianity in China during the Early 19th Century: Yao Ying and Kangyou Jixing]。《景風》[Ching Feng: A Journal on Christianity and Chinese Religion and Culture],第16期,2017,頁145-166。

  • 〈終極關懷與現實考量:魏源的天主教論述〉[Ultimate Concern and Political Agenda: View on Religions and Tianzhu jiao Discourse of Wei Yuan]。《九州學林》[Chinese Culture Quarterly],第38期,2017,頁91-141。

  • 〈由“宗教比較”到“救國”:張純一與《墨學與景教》〉[From Comparative of Religions to National Salvation: Zhang Chunyi and Mohism and Christianity]。《東方文化》[Journal of Oriental Studies] (as co-author, with Gustav K.K. Yeung 楊國強),49.2期,2017年3月,頁63-82。

  • 〈神明的重構:《呂祖全書》對「斬黃龍」及「戲牡丹」的回應〉 [Reconstruction of Deity: The Lüzu quanshu (Complete Works of the Orthodox Lineage of the Patriarch Lü) on the myth of “Slaughtering Yellow Dragon” and “Molesting Moutan”]。《文學論衡》[Journal of Chinese Literary Studies],總第28期,2016年8月,頁79-92。


  •  “Marginalization of Religious Identity on the Frontier: Muslims under the Qing Empire during and after the Khoja Wars, Late 18th to Early 19th Century.” To be published with King Faisal Center for Research Islamic Studies in Oxford University Press in 2020.

  • 〈再思中國世俗主義:清帝國儒者伊斯蘭觀的角度〉 [Rethinking Secularism in China: From Views on Islam of Confucians in Qing Empire].《「華人穆斯林」:中國 記憶與天方之禮》 [“Chinese Muslim”: Chinese Memories and the Rite in Arabia]. To be published with Zhenghe Forum 鄭和論壇 in 2019.


  • Grant on Community Involvement Broadcasting Service of Radio Television Hong Kong

  • Partnership Project of The Intangible Cultural Heritage Office of Leisure and Cultural Services Department of HKSAR Government

  • The World from East Asian Perspective: Source Publishing Project on Global History Grant [東亞視角的世界:全球史資料出版計劃], Showwe Information Co., Ltd.

  • Minorities and their International Networks in Hong Kong: Oral History Project, Hong Kong Policy Research Institute X Glocal Learning Offices

  • Academic Research Grant of Instituto Cultural, Cultural Affairs Bureau of the MSAR Government

  • Postdoctoral Fellowship of Centre for the Study of Islamic Culture, The Chinese University of Hong Kong

  • Funding Programme of Research Projects on Equal Opportunities 平等機會研究項目資助計劃 2017/18


  • What's Under the Table: Illegitimate Interaction between China and the World Since 1000 [枱底下的交流:1000 年以來中國與世界的「不正當」互動] (Organiser and Presenter; 2020)

  • 2019 International Conference on Ming-Qing Studies Academia Sinica (Presenter; 2019)

  • Beyond Cooperation: The Past, Present and Possible Future Between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Greater China Area, Centre for the Study of Islamic Culture, CUHK; Hong Kong Policy Research Institute. (Organiser and Presenter; 2019)

  • The Fifth Young Scholars’ Forum in Chinese Studies, Institute of Chinese Studies, CUHK. (Presenter; 2019)

  • Third International Conference on Chinese Law and History, College of Humanities and College of Law of National Taipei University and International Society for Chinese Law & History. (Presenter; 2019)

  • Saudi-Chinese relations: a view from Hong Kong, The Center for Asian Studies of The Asian Studies Centre Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Prince Saud Al Faisal Institute for Diplomatic Studies. (Presenter; 2018)

  • South-China's Integration Experience, The King Faisal Center for Research and Islamic Studies; Centre for the Study of Islamic Culture, CUHK; Hong Kong Policy Research Institute (Organiser and presenter; 2018)

  • 中亞大棋盤:內外因素的互動 [Grand Chessboard in Inner Asia: Interaction of Inner and Outer Factors], NCCU. (Presenter; 2017)

  • Regular Academic Symposium (20th of April), Institute of Modern History, Academia Sinica. (Presenter; 2017)

  • New Interpretation, New Ideas: The Second Annual Literary Studies Symposium for Junior Researches, HKU; CUHK. (Presenter; 2017)

  • The Fourth Young Scholars’ Forum in Chinese Studies, Institute of Chinese Studies, CUHK. (Presenter; 2017)

  • Pleasure, Providence and Purity: An International Conference on Food and Drink in Islamic Societies and Cultures, Centre for the Study of Islamic Culture, CUHK. (Presenter; 2017)

  • The 20th Anniversary Celebration of Centre for the Study of Religion and Chinese Society, Chung Chi College and the 8th International Young Scholars’ Symposium on “Christianity and Chinese Society and Culture” (Presenter; 2016)

  • European Association for the Study of Religions Conference in Helsinki: Relocating Religion (Presenter; 2016)

  • In Search of New Methods, Perspectives and Sources: Hong Kong Postgraduate Students Conference on Ming-Qing Studies (Presenter; 2016)

  • The Remaking of Erudite Scholars: Western Knowledge & Confucian in Eighteenth- Century China (The University of Hong Kong) (Presenter; 2015)

  • Law, Religion, and Politics: Challenges to Traditional Borders in Global and Comparative Perspectives (Co-authorship; 2015)

  • 2015 International Conference on Ming-Qing Studies Academia Sinica (Participant; 2015)

  • Eighth Forum on Catholic Studies for Young Chinese Scholars (Presenter; 2015) § Oxford Symposium on Religious Studies (2014) (Presenter; 2014)

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